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Editor's Note: Guy Bensusan is best known for his
successful method of peer teaching on the Web. In the early 90's he taught
similar courses using the multi-campus interactive television network at
Northern Arizona University. It is interesting to compare his description
of the television experience with the syllabus for his web courses
published July 2001 in the USDLA Journal.
Introduction to the course
You sign up for a Liberal Studies course, "1492
and the Arts," and on entering the classroom see big television
screens, microphones and TV cameras. Startled, you wonder if you're in the
right place. You are, but since NAU's IITV technology is new, and the
discussion-plus-project-based, learner-centered, self-directed method is
uncommon, we will describe it to eliminate surprise. The first part of
this essay will cover approaches to content and the second will explain
the technology and various do's and don'ts for using it. A third part,
spelling out course organization and grading, is described in a chapter
called The Bensusan Method.
We study "1492
and the Arts" in a Humanities course. It is not an Art course, nor History,
Sociology, Biography or any other academic specialty. Humanities examines
expressions humans have created in their cultures over long periods of
time -- meaning the arts, music, literature, dance, costume, foods,
religion, history, social sciences, and the sciences which tell stories of
stars, earth, plants, animals, minerals and so on.
In fact, while one school of thought considers
Humanities as the study of Human Aesthetic Principles, another sees it as
Comparative Arts and Cultures. Regardless, it focuses on who we are and
what we think, cutting across academic disciplines to explore what humans
created through the ages and around the globe by examining the evidence of
arts, ideas, relationships, structures, situations, developments over time
When we say "1492 and the Arts," many of us
will automatically see certain images, though the more we think about it,
the more questions may arise. A survey might net several meanings in our
title. One might be: What Happened to the Arts after Columbus came and
went back? And does this imply in America or in Europe? And does everyone
associate 1492 with Columbus? Spanish Language scholars might say,
"1492 marks the publication by Lebrija of the first dictionary of the
Spanish Language, which helped centralize Spain's political life and
created the dominance of Castilian."
International Jurists could say, "1492 marks the
first use of the principle of discovery as a legal basis for territorial
acquisition." Or, Sephardic Jews might say, "1492 is when we
were expelled from Spain," and Moroccan Moslems might say,
"Granada fell to the Spanish Christians in 1492, indicating the end
of the magnificence of Moorish Spain." For Japan, 1492 marked the
Shogun struggles; in Russia it saw Ivan the Great conquer Lithuania; while
in Peru, the Inca Empire of Huayna Capac had expanded in the Andes, ruling
eight million people from Chile to Colombia. Arabs would undoubtedly say,
"What do you mean, 1492?, this is only 1373," referring to the
fact that their calendar begins with the flight of Mohammed from Mecca in
622. So, while 1492 was a banner year, how you see it relates to your
culture and point of view.
For our course purposes we will primarily, though not
exclusively, examine the many American arts resulting over time from the
Columbian Encounter. We cannot focus totally on the New World for several
- the arts of the Old World need to be considered since many of them
will interact with Indian arts;
- arts and ideas from America moved eastward as well, so influence
was mutual; and
- the lengthy relationship of trade between Spain and America,
especially Cuba and Puerto Rico (1492-1898), helped establish something
which Spanish scholars call Las Artes de Ida y Vuelta, roughly meaning The
Arts of Going Over and Returning, which became a continuous spiral of
developments in arts, music, dance, clothing, language, and many other
fine and folk activities.
There were other factors. For instance, if we watch
the change of visual renderings of human and animal figures, it becomes
clear that Indians depicted them before Columbus arrived, while Europeans
did it in a different manner. This is important, since Indians did not
"discover" Europe, colonize it and then tell the Europeans,
"No, that's not right, draw it this way, use these shapes, these
colors, and stay inside the lines." It was the other way around,
which meant that those Indians who initially were colonized by the
Spaniards had to do most of the adapting, even if the influence of their
ways would definitely be felt in Spanish arts.
In early class meetings we will discuss arts through
the Hexadigm. We then examine The Bias Factor and its parts and filters.
The Ladder of Comprehension explores many levels of interpretation to be
considered as one learns a subject. Other chapters discuss traditional,
modern and post-modern theories and schools of interpretation giving us a
history of the ways Western scholars have explained the earth, society and
human behavior. Each one of these schools sheds light on one or more ways
that the consequences of the 1492 encounter were interpreted as time went
on -- a fascinating story in itself.
The chapter on evaluating sources of information is
practical, dealing with how one tries to determine the potential accuracy
of what one learns from books, diaries, magazines and newsletters, but
also from videotapes and recordings, museums and galleries, historical and
natural parks and monuments, interpretative theme parks, special purpose
associations, private collections, collections of oral traditions and
interviews with individuals.
Two important considerations affect us:
- students at all sites cannot have equal access to the resources of
NAU's Cline Library, despite the existence of libraries in their own
communities and the excellent efforts of inter-library loan, and
- the fact that books provide one type of knowledge, point of view
and learning, artifacts from archaeology and history provide another,
while stories from ethnographic interviews make a third.
Students are encouraged to select project topics
based on what sources are available, and also to consider their non-book
Several different mindsets and perspectives concern
is the question of finding out what actually happened within our topic
and how we can be sure of the information.
is to follow different components or threads that weave through the
story fabric to learn what happened over time.
third examines how we personally react to the information and how our
perceptions evolve as we develop the study through the semester.
fourth looks at how the topic and data have been interpreted in many
evolving disciplines and schools of thought.
fifth concerns our predisposed mindsets and stereotypes, inherited
from our ethnicity, culture, religion, gender and nationality.
sixth explores new perspectives and techniques for learning about the
subject, determining validity and updating earlier conclusions.
seventh is the learner-centered, project-oriented, growth-graded,
cooperative activity on state-of-the-art Interactive Instructional
Television NAU-net of nine Arizona classrooms.
Taking an IITV course is not exactly the same as
taking a class in another manner -- equipment, staff, protocol, methods
and expectations are distinctive. There are cameras, monitors,
pad-scanners, computers, videotape, microphones and open-audio, while the
professor, rather than being alone, is helped by control-room operators at
each site as surrogates with assignments, materials distribution and
evaluations. In one case, an IITV course is a cooperative-education model,
with interdependence of professor and staff as the support for learning by
One consideration is the vocabulary, especially in
Flagstaff. Most on-campus students are also enrolled in courses not
delivered electronically. Since descriptive words have implications, what
should we call those; if one is "the regular classroom," then by
reverse association IITV is the "irregular classroom."
"Normal" evokes "abnormal," with like implications for
common, typical, standard, ordinary, usual, classic, and other synonyms.
We need new words, because the yardstick is based on older ways.
The label is also important because
"INTERACTIVE," whether by ignorance, calculation, or a bit of
both, is a current-market buzz-word which confuses and misleads. To
interact means to send the action both ways -- and NAU's system is totally
interactive in that regard. Teacher and students at all the sites are
technologically able to engage in dialogue at any time -- whether the
teacher wants to do that or just wants to lecture. The potential for going
beyond our ancient traditions of teacher-tells-story while students
write-it-down is perhaps the most important component of re-design in the
current educational revolution.
Since some say that any student feedback, even one
question, constitutes "interaction," it may be useful to spell
out the qualities, rank the interaction levels and discuss educational
potentials. With IITV, three levels are apparent: Full Interaction,
Partial Interaction and Delayed Interaction.
I. FULL INTERACTION (meaning two-way video with
A. Motion seen
- Full motion, via analog microwave signal
- Diminished motion, compressed video via phone
- With open microphones
- With push-button microphones
- Operators at all sites
- Operators at master site only
II. PARTIAL INTERACTION (meaning one-way video,
A. One way video and two way
- With microphones at each desk
- With one central microphone for students
B. One way video and phone return
- Open phone lines in each classroom
- With one central phone available for call-ins
III. DELAYED INTERACTION (meaning one-way video,
- Class watches tape, then holds group discussion with visiting
professor or teaching assistant -- alternative is growing for individual
feedback over e-mail.
- Site goes off-line, tape is sent for students to watch, discuss,
write review and send by FAX, courier, mail or e-mail
- Student who is absent watches video afterwards, writes review and
delivers or sends it
The outline shows several options; the highest and
fullest interaction clearly is two-way video, two-way audio, open
microphones both ways, multiple sites and operators at each. This is NAU-net,
with the one exception of Prescott, which uses compressed video, a choice
made for physical-topographic reasons. NAU can set up its many classrooms
into various configurations, offering a course to one or to as many as
eight off-campus sites at the same time. Eighty different courses will be
carried over NAU-net in the fall of 1995, many originating from Yuma.
Full-motion, full-interaction with many linked
classrooms makes it possible for teachers to explore new teaching ways
that go beyond tradition. In 1994, the NAU Foundation awarded
Instructional Television a grant to pursue research, discussion and
experimentation with alternative teaching methods for helping learners and
for evaluating student learning. Along with Guy Bensusan, several NAU
professors are collaborating on the project.
Some examples of first stage efforts are using
Computer Generated Visuals and also printing them as a course-pack: having
students present textbook information to the rest of the class and holding
discussion over the main points in conjunction with the professor, and
using small-group activity to generate presentations of information and
interpretation to the whole class.
Another level of student involvement and evaluation
is in restructuring the classroom process, creating discussion in
selecting, defining and assessing examples of course principles with
application by individual students or small groups. Brief,
well-constructed projects for presentation over the IITV system is another
level of practical involvement of students in their own learning. These
various methods have shown promise, and courses taught by Guy Bensusan
will be student-centered, growth-assessed and project-oriented. Each
semester we will attempt to go farther in this direction.
Why does it take so long to learn to do new things?
It is difficult and risky to experiment when large numbers of Liberal Arts
students are signed up for the course; the professor is responsible for
maintaining the course content approved by several faculty committees, and
rules of the course should not be changed during the semester. Syllabus
commitments are legally binding. Thus, course development only progresses
a few steps each semester -- and those must be written into the syllabus
before the course begins.
We are not in a vacuum, and students can be as
locked-in to safe, "comfy" traditions as professors, staff,
administrators and parents. Class layout also inhibits change, because we
take existing classrooms and retro-fit electronic gear, squeezing to make
it all fit. It would be nice to build a brand new IITV classroom that did
not have chairs and tables in rows facing the blackboard and a podium.
That inheritance presupposes the professor will present information to
students, who sit in rows writing down what is said.
The conventional vocabulary of
teacher/student/lecture/test does not help us change things either. What
are synonyms for teacher? Educator, master, instructor, professor, tutor
-- in all cases indicating something being taught by someone who knows, to
a lot of people who don't. We might this the Edgar Rice Burroughs'
approach, but instead of "me Tarzan, you Jane," it is "me
teacher, you dummy." It probably derives from when there was only one
book and the priest was the only one who could read it, alone or aloud to
others. Lecture relates to sermon, thereby conveying various other moral,
political and psychological insinuations.
But we are not there anymore: we cannot be if we
consider the information explosion. No one teacher could possibly read
everything relating to his or her field of study now; this is one reason,
by the way, for so many fields dividing into sub-specialties, and often
serves as a rationale for perpetuating lecture, since the professor is
But I would then ask, why can't the professor put the
information on paper, assign the reading, and then let students talk about
the ideas and meanings? One does not need the IITV situation to create
interaction, but incentives for doing it are few. Other traditions, such
as closed-door classrooms, no admittance without permission from the
professor, and the ritual of omnipotent professor are all part of sacred
(occasionally abused) academic freedom. Any change at all means extensive
work for the change-maker, and everyone already has too much work in those
activities, which over time have become The Safe and Proven Paths to
promotions, peer recognition, raises and other rewards. One earns few
points for going against the wishes of those who vote for those rewards.
Hindrances besides megatons of inertia exist. How is
change justified: by research. How do we design research: by measures
already accepted. Yesterday's yardstick appraises tomorrow's innovation --
is there a contradiction? Are we not locking ourselves into a
minimum-change mode? If we continue to tinker with lecture, test,
grading-by-points and bell curve, as well as subtracting points for
absences, we cannot easily move beyond them.
Let us break out of the old model and invert the
paradigm; instead of focus on teaching, let us emphasize the learning! Who
learns when lecture is written? Who learns when lecture is read? The
teacher learns -- it was clear to me in graduate school that giving a
"lecture" was a performance, like a poetry reading or any
other song, dance or pantomime on stage. You got applause for clever,
witty oration: not from the students, but from your professors and other
Does lecture help students learn? Research says they
learn less by hearing than by a combination of presentation forms. A good
lecture provides a model for a good lecture, but students also need to
learn by reading, listening, doing, taking field trips, comparing,
discussion: handling the information, arguing about it, and being guided
in figuring out their discoveries. The doing is even better if the
learner is provided with useful tools, encouraged to apply them to
specific topics, and with the teacher available for help while
"students do the doing."
And where does learning take place? The
cartoon of teacher holding a pitcher of knowledge and pouring it into the
open-lidded head of the student amuses us, but is untrue. It does not
depict where and how learning happens, nor how much is absorbed or passed
on through, unused. Certainly it differs among students; I happen to learn
best not when someone tells me, but when someone shows me: when I am given
a picture or image to study. Written instruction tells me nothing --
pictures do. Others prefer words.
If learners are individual and learning is
distinctive, why not concentrate on those? If as learner-helpers (rather
than teachers) we can tap into student motivations and encourage learning,
especially the habit of learning on their own rather than being totally
dependent on a teacher, we will go far. But we must surrender old-tapes
and counterproductive conditionings; we must allow students freedom to
choose in their zones of comfort rather than ours; we must abandon
the notion that learning is serious and solemn while any play is frivolous
and sinful. We must let students experiment, build, putter, falter,
regroup and improve without being punished or even graded on each step. It
is the end result of self-direction and lifelong learning, applicable to
every facet of their lives, that counts.
If we must use grades, why not let students
earn exit grades, at the end of the course? Since all students do not
learn at the same pace or manner, let them function at their own metabolic
learning rate. Students can write about a topic at the beginning of the
course and keep on developing, expanding, revising and rewriting step by
step to the fourth and final edit.
The amount of progress, dedication, responsibility,
ingenuity and growth justifies the final grade. The teacher should give
feedback, encouragement and suggestions for improvement. Success creates
motivation, and if students choose their own subject to work on, the
ground is safe; the potential for lateral extension occurs when the
student is ready. Yet, when I discuss this in class, there are four types
- One is, "At last I will be treated as if I actually have a
- The second is, "It sounds interesting, let's give it a
- The third is, "What's the gimmick?"
- The fourth is, "I have never been able to work unless someone
forces me with threats and deadlines."
Student dependence is deeply ingrained; they stand in
lines, are told what to read, what to think, when to study, when to take
the test, are issued grades, and are sometimes mistreated for daring to
question or disagree.
Attempts to shift motivation from fear to trust must
travel through the adjustment zone of balancing freedom with obligation
and accountability. Even more, the mental-psychological shift means
abandoning the common social bonds of "all-nighters before the big
exam," the "victim psychology," and collective griping, as
well as the massive, mob amnesia.
It also means that if we throw something out, we must replace it
with something better. If we are to discuss, rather than lecture, we all
need to know what we are talking about -- otherwise we exchange
biases, fables and ignorance. The professor must make information
accessible, while students must make three important commitments,
obligations and responsibilities.
- Assigned material must be read before class discussion.
- Students must participate and share ideas (on paper if
- In discussion, they may start with reaction, but must make an
effort to go up the ladder, to use the Hexadigm, to relate ideas to
schools of interpretation, and so on.
While experience shows that it does work, you
may feel stress and anxiety when we begin, but it gets better and easier.
I will not put you on the spot; I will acknowledge your contribution and
not belittle it. I will encourage and try to draw more students into the
exploration. There are few proper or correct answers to our humanistic
questions -- we explore ways of perceiving and interpreting, seeking
relationships and parallels, comparisons and contrasts, following
development of forms and ideas, describing contexts, and going beyond
the most obvious. I will not sum up at the end of class; I will not
tell you "the answer." I have my own answers about many
things; I want you to develop yours, based on the broad encounter
you have had with many important ideas.
Twenty-five years ago was when I began changing my
style of teaching, in part because I was asked to teach subjects in which
I had no formal training, and was usually only one chapter ahead. But I
also shifted gears because I had learned so much from creating various
media programs for the 1976 Bicentennial, and from being a professor on
the SS Universe for the Semester at Sea. These led me out of the
"standard, typical, traditional" classroom and into situations
where I had to use alternatives. As much as I loved it and felt
good about it, I also felt guilty -- the weight of academe was and is
extremely powerful. It is interesting that something which obviously works
requires explanation and apology.
Two other factors helped this
"born-again-learner-helper." One was getting started in IITV in
1987, and the other was the tide of non-traditional students. With IITV
the liberation was almost immediate. I joined a unit of dedicated
professionals whose positive support and
"We-will-make-it-happen" attitude was inspiring and
rejuvenating. My four-part job description said I would teach two courses
over the system each semester, that I was to experiment with the system
and explore the different ways it might function better, that I was to
assist and encourage other faculty in their early IITV voyages, and that I
was to help build the overall student program. Consequently, it became my
specific duty to find interactive ways of focusing upon the learner.
Non-traditional students were vital in our early
success. They were older, already married, working, with children, or were
"empty-nesters." Whatever the situation, they had
responsibilities traditional students did not have; it was necessary to
accommodate their needs, wants, schedules and different motivations. Since
they were off campus I had to find ways to compensate for the lack of
books and resources to work with. Since they often sought enrichment and
fulfillment rather than degrees, I had to plug-in to that non-standard
motivation. But what they did and how they learned demonstrated our
procedures were viable, and I organized and extended them to everyone.
While the final lineup of our classroom sites has not
been made at this point, it would appear that Flagstaff will be linked
with the following communities: Coolidge, Holbrook, Lake Havasu City,
Kingman, Prescott, Thatcher, Tuba City and Yuma. As you look at this
line-up it becomes apparent that the portion of the Hexadigm called
Regional Diversity is well represented. Yuma is an old agricultural and
military community on the Mexico-California border at an elevation of
150', and is the site of Arizona Western College; Lake Havasu City, at
500' is a recent, planned community catering to Anglo retirees on the
Colorado River and houses one of the branches of Mohave Community College.
Kingman is Anglo with a few Indians and Mexican
Americans, located in ranching and mining country at 3300', and the center
of Mohave Community College; Prescott is at 5300', overwhelmingly Anglo, a
former state capital and an historic gold mining district and center for
arts, recreation, folklore and retirees. It houses Yavapai Community
College and Prescott College. Tuba City is near 5000' on the Navajo
Reservation, between Grand Canyon and Canyon de Chelly, near Betatakin and
Navajo National monuments, extensively Navajo in its student population,
and the classroom is in the High School.
Holbrook is at 5000', a hundred miles east of
Flagstaff, near the Painted Desert, on the Santa Fe line and I-40, a
tourist center and the headquarters of Northland Pioneer College; Coolidge
is between Phoenix and Tucson, near the Gila River and the Casa Grande
Ruins, site of Central Arizona College, and an important farming community
at 1600'. Finally, Thatcher (2900') is up-river on the Gila and at the
eastern foot of 10,700' Mount Graham. Founded by Mormon Apostle Moses
Thatcher in 1881, this important farming and ranching community created St
Joseph Stake Academy in 1891, and the institution became Eastern Arizona
College in 1933.
Nor should we forget Flagstaff, gateway to the north,
the Grand Canyon and many other important parks, an intellectual,
educational and scientific center, a multicultural community in the heart
of the Ponderosa forest at 7000', and at the foot of the almost 13000' San
Francisco Peaks, which are sacred to Hopi, Navajo, and indispensable in a
spectrum of different manners, to those of us who live here. We will
perceive the importance of geography when we listen to students at
different sites. One important part of the course is understanding that
points of view expressed by widely separated people when they discuss a
subject over IITV relate to their regional cultural conditioning, which
itself can be affected by location as much as by race and point of origin.
Finally, let us consider some of the necessaries
which will make our semester work. We need to know at the outset that ours
is a new system, that we have a unique piece of equipment in the Nine-Way
Circuit, and that three of the sites are brand new this fall and two
others have only been on line one semester. One of the TV Services people
says, "We are building it as we are flying it," which is not an
unwarranted description. Things work well most of the time. But sometimes,
they don't, sometimes being affected by weather. A direct lightning hit
will demolish a dish or tower, and even take a site off-line. Balancing
audios at nine sites so everyone comes in on the same voice level is
tricky and sometimes warps. Considering the complex technology, IITV
performs unbelievably well.
Human error exists -- meaning student error and
professor error -- I make mistakes, too. Certain things must be remembered
or they create problems. One is microphones, which are attached to desks
and always hot (meaning on). If you come in late, please remember to enter
quietly and close the door gently. Pay attention to the screen and try to
avoid getting in front of the camera shot as you go to your seat -- it is
If you bring your books in a bag, set them on the
desk noiselessly. And remember that in emphasizing your point by pounding
your fist on the desk you will also be making thundering noises at the
other sites, drowning out the very words you want to be heard.
When you contribute to class discussion, keep in mind
the distance from your microphone. Even though it is on and set at a
normal level, it will not pick up your voice if you lean way back in your
seat. Conversely, if you lean in too close, the sound will distort.
If you shove the microphone out of the way, point it
straight up in the air, twist or otherwise handle it, you will make
distracting and annoying noises at the other sites. So leave the mikes
alone -- I do not wish to embarrass you in class, or have to speak to you
about it afterwards. When you have something to say, put your face six
inches from the microphone nearest you, and speak into it with a normal
voice. Just because the Yuma folks are 300 miles away does not mean you
need to shout.
And what do you say? Well, the first thing you
should say is, "IN FLAGSTAFF, THIS IS JANE" -- and then, take a
breath and say your piece. These three pieces of business have specific
purposes. IN FLAGSTAFF alerts the master operator which classroom to
switch to. THIS IS JANE helps the classroom operator to find you and put
you on the screen so the rest of the class can see who is talking.
Taking a breath before you start has a double
effect, one by calming you a bit, and the second in giving the operator a
little more time to focus on the classroom and make the proper microphone
adjustment on the audio board. After doing it the first few times it will
all come naturally.
You may be disconcerted when you see yourself up on
that big screen. You may not like that face or feel embarrassed, or not be
able to think when you are looking at yourself. You may even ask me to not
let the operator put you on the screen or you may decide not to talk to
avoid the "problem." There's a solution to this: ignore the
screen, pay attention instead to saying exactly what you want
You will rapidly see the importance of doing this as
you listen to others make their contributions. You will notice that it
helps your understanding to watch them talk; you read their body language
on the screen as you hear their words -- and that works both ways.
Secondly, if it bothers, disconcerts, or embarrasses
you to see yourself on the screen, don't look at the screen. You can look
at me if you want, but in fact, if you are doing what you should be
doing when you are talking, you won't be looking at yourself on the screen
WHERE SHOULD YOU LOOK WHEN YOU ARE TALKING?
"At the camera." Think about it -- you know how important it is
in our culture to look into someone's eyes when you are speaking to them,
especially for credibility. If you are looking down or somewhere else or
shifty-eyed, the listener will not get the message you think you are
If you are talking to someone at another site, and
they are on the screen, your natural temptation is to look into the eyes
shown on the screen. That makes sense, right? WRONG! Because if you ask
what puts that picture on the screen, you see immediately that it is the
camera. Therefore, if you will look directly into the camera when you are
talking, everyone looking at the screen will think you are looking into
his or her eyes.
If you look at the screen when you talk, the camera
will show a side shot or an earshot on the screen. Even if the camera is
right next to the screen, you will not be making full eye contact unless
you look into the camera.
And that is another reason why I do not lecture: I
don't want to see the tops of your heads while you write, I want to see
your eyes -- and so do all the other students, those who are in this
classroom and those at the other sites. They, like you, would like to be
included in the conversation.
If you bring that idea into this IITV room, it works.
In a traditional classroom, when a student who sits behind you says
something, you can listen, or turn around and look. Here you have a
better, more comfortable option: look at the monitor. And if the
responding student looks into the eye of the camera, you will see and feel
the student looking directly at you!
Some final considerations:
- Since students who are in the same classroom as the live teacher
are inevitably called upon first, I usually try to give off-campus
students first chance to speak when two people at both sites have spoken
- On written work, put your name and location on every page,
indicate date, course and your phone number on the front page. MAKE AND
KEEP A COPY of everything you submit, just in case it goes astray.
- PLEASE make sure the printing font is large enough and dark enough
that my declining eyes can read your words.
- If you are on the Flagstaff campus, please sign up for a Dana
E-mail account as soon as you can; if you are off campus please find out
about the e-mail possibilities. Then you will have direct access to me
electronically, and I can respond in the same manner.
Taking this IITV course will be a positive and
productive experience. Just remember that every new educational situation
is unique in its makeup of students and an adventure in learning more
about yourself and about the world around you. See you in class, WELCOME!
- Just because you have deadlines in other courses does not
mean you should procrastinate and only turn in a first-draft in this one.
- Just because your essays are due every three weeks does not
mean you may turn them all in on the last day.
- Just because you don't have to study for tests does not mean you should not read the text, or that you are not being examined and evaluated every day.
- Just because you didn't get a chance to talk doesn't mean
you should not try harder to contribute next time.
- Just because you feel nervous and your heart pounds when you
talk in class does not mean you won't get over it.
- Just because you need to participate in class discussion
does not mean you should not be intellectually prepared every day.
- Just because I do not take roll does not mean the camera has
not observed your absence.
- Just because you don't get a grade on each assignment does
not mean you should not do your best work each time.
- Just because you have reactive feelings about the subject
does not mean you should not try to climb the Ladder and consider your